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NLOHMANN_DEFINE_TYPE_INTRUSIVE, NLOHMANN_DEFINE_TYPE_INTRUSIVE_WITH_DEFAULT

#define NLOHMANN_DEFINE_TYPE_INTRUSIVE(type, member...)              // (1)
#define NLOHMANN_DEFINE_TYPE_INTRUSIVE_WITH_DEFAULT(type, member...) // (2)

These macros can be used to simplify the serialization/deserialization of types if you want to use a JSON object as serialization and want to use the member variable names as object keys in that object. The macro is to be defined inside the class/struct to create code for. Unlike NLOHMANN_DEFINE_TYPE_NON_INTRUSIVE, it can access private members. The first parameter is the name of the class/struct, and all remaining parameters name the members.

  1. Will use at during deserialization and will throw out_of_range.403 if a key is missing in the JSON object.
  2. Will use value during deserialization and fall back to the default value for the respective type of the member variable if a key in the JSON object is missing. The generated from_json() function default constructs an object and uses its values as the defaults when calling the value function.

Parameters

type (in)
name of the type (class, struct) to serialize/deserialize
member (in)
name of the member variable to serialize/deserialize; up to 64 members can be given as comma-separated list

Default definition

The macros add two friend functions to the class which take care of the serialization and deserialization:

friend void to_json(nlohmann::json&, const type&);
friend void from_json(const nlohmann::json&, type&);

See examples below for the concrete generated code.

Notes

Prerequisites

  1. The type type must be default constructible. See How can I use get() for non-default constructible/non-copyable types? for how to overcome this limitation.
  2. The macro must be used inside the type (class/struct).

Implementation limits

  • The current implementation is limited to at most 64 member variables. If you want to serialize/deserialize types with more than 64 member variables, you need to define the to_json/from_json functions manually.
  • The macros only work for the nlohmann::json type; other specializations such as nlohmann::ordered_json are currently unsupported.

Examples

Example (1): NLOHMANN_DEFINE_TYPE_INTRUSIVE

Consider the following complete example:

#include <iostream>
#include <nlohmann/json.hpp>

using json = nlohmann::json;
using namespace nlohmann::literals;

namespace ns
{
class person
{
  private:
    std::string name = "John Doe";
    std::string address = "123 Fake St";
    int age = -1;

  public:
    person() = default;
    person(std::string name_, std::string address_, int age_)
        : name(std::move(name_)), address(std::move(address_)), age(age_)
    {}

    NLOHMANN_DEFINE_TYPE_INTRUSIVE(person, name, address, age)
};
} // namespace ns

int main()
{
    ns::person p = {"Ned Flanders", "744 Evergreen Terrace", 60};

    // serialization: person -> json
    json j = p;
    std::cout << "serialization: " << j << std::endl;

    // deserialization: json -> person
    json j2 = R"({"address": "742 Evergreen Terrace", "age": 40, "name": "Homer Simpson"})"_json;
    auto p2 = j2.get<ns::person>();

    // incomplete deserialization:
    json j3 = R"({"address": "742 Evergreen Terrace", "name": "Maggie Simpson"})"_json;
    try
    {
        auto p3 = j3.get<ns::person>();
    }
    catch (json::exception& e)
    {
        std::cout << "deserialization failed: " << e.what() << std::endl;
    }
}

Output:

serialization: {"address":"744 Evergreen Terrace","age":60,"name":"Ned Flanders"}
deserialization failed: [json.exception.out_of_range.403] key 'age' not found

Notes:

  • ns::person is default-constructible. This is a requirement for using the macro.
  • ns::person has private member variables. This makes NLOHMANN_DEFINE_TYPE_INTRUSIVE applicable, but not NLOHMANN_DEFINE_TYPE_NON_INTRUSIVE.
  • The macro NLOHMANN_DEFINE_TYPE_INTRUSIVE is used inside the class.
  • A missing key "age" in the deserialization yields an exception. To fall back to the default value, NLOHMANN_DEFINE_TYPE_INTRUSIVE_WITH_DEFAULT can be used.

The macro is equivalent to:

#include <iostream>
#include <nlohmann/json.hpp>

using json = nlohmann::json;
using namespace nlohmann::literals;

namespace ns
{
class person
{
  private:
    std::string name = "John Doe";
    std::string address = "123 Fake St";
    int age = -1;

  public:
    person() = default;
    person(std::string name_, std::string address_, int age_)
        : name(std::move(name_)), address(std::move(address_)), age(age_)
    {}

    friend void to_json(nlohmann::json& nlohmann_json_j, const person& nlohmann_json_t)
    {
        nlohmann_json_j["name"] = nlohmann_json_t.name;
        nlohmann_json_j["address"] = nlohmann_json_t.address;
        nlohmann_json_j["age"] = nlohmann_json_t.age;
    }

    friend void from_json(const nlohmann::json& nlohmann_json_j, person& nlohmann_json_t)
    {
        nlohmann_json_t.name = nlohmann_json_j.at("name");
        nlohmann_json_t.address = nlohmann_json_j.at("address");
        nlohmann_json_t.age = nlohmann_json_j.at("age");
    }
};
} // namespace ns

int main()
{
    ns::person p = {"Ned Flanders", "744 Evergreen Terrace", 60};

    // serialization: person -> json
    json j = p;
    std::cout << "serialization: " << j << std::endl;

    // deserialization: json -> person
    json j2 = R"({"address": "742 Evergreen Terrace", "age": 40, "name": "Homer Simpson"})"_json;
    auto p2 = j2.get<ns::person>();

    // incomplete deserialization:
    json j3 = R"({"address": "742 Evergreen Terrace", "name": "Maggie Simpson"})"_json;
    try
    {
        auto p3 = j3.get<ns::person>();
    }
    catch (json::exception& e)
    {
        std::cout << "deserialization failed: " << e.what() << std::endl;
    }
}
Example (2): NLOHMANN_DEFINE_TYPE_INTRUSIVE_WITH_DEFAULT

Consider the following complete example:

#include <iostream>
#include <nlohmann/json.hpp>

using json = nlohmann::json;
using namespace nlohmann::literals;

namespace ns
{
class person
{
  private:
    std::string name = "John Doe";
    std::string address = "123 Fake St";
    int age = -1;

  public:
    person() = default;
    person(std::string name_, std::string address_, int age_)
        : name(std::move(name_)), address(std::move(address_)), age(age_)
    {}

    NLOHMANN_DEFINE_TYPE_INTRUSIVE_WITH_DEFAULT(person, name, address, age)
};
} // namespace ns

int main()
{
    ns::person p = {"Ned Flanders", "744 Evergreen Terrace", 60};

    // serialization: person -> json
    json j = p;
    std::cout << "serialization: " << j << std::endl;

    // deserialization: json -> person
    json j2 = R"({"address": "742 Evergreen Terrace", "age": 40, "name": "Homer Simpson"})"_json;
    auto p2 = j2.get<ns::person>();

    // incomplete deserialization:
    json j3 = R"({"address": "742 Evergreen Terrace", "name": "Maggie Simpson"})"_json;
    auto p3 = j3.get<ns::person>();
    std::cout << "roundtrip: " << json(p3) << std::endl;
}

Output:

serialization: {"address":"744 Evergreen Terrace","age":60,"name":"Ned Flanders"}
roundtrip: {"address":"742 Evergreen Terrace","age":-1,"name":"Maggie Simpson"}

Notes:

  • ns::person is default-constructible. This is a requirement for using the macro.
  • ns::person has private member variables. This makes NLOHMANN_DEFINE_TYPE_INTRUSIVE_WITH_DEFAULT applicable, but not NLOHMANN_DEFINE_TYPE_NON_INTRUSIVE_WITH_DEFAULT.
  • The macro NLOHMANN_DEFINE_TYPE_INTRUSIVE_WITH_DEFAULT is used inside the class.
  • A missing key "age" in the deserialization does not yield an exception. Instead, the default value -1 is used.

The macro is equivalent to:

#include <iostream>
#include <nlohmann/json.hpp>

using json = nlohmann::json;
using namespace nlohmann::literals;

namespace ns
{
class person
{
  private:
    std::string name = "John Doe";
    std::string address = "123 Fake St";
    int age = -1;

  public:
    person() = default;
    person(std::string name_, std::string address_, int age_)
        : name(std::move(name_)), address(std::move(address_)), age(age_)
    {}

    friend void to_json(nlohmann::json& nlohmann_json_j, const person& nlohmann_json_t)
    {
        nlohmann_json_j["name"] = nlohmann_json_t.name;
        nlohmann_json_j["address"] = nlohmann_json_t.address;
        nlohmann_json_j["age"] = nlohmann_json_t.age;
    }

    friend void from_json(const nlohmann::json& nlohmann_json_j, person& nlohmann_json_t)
    {
        person nlohmann_json_default_obj;
        nlohmann_json_t.name = nlohmann_json_j.value("name", nlohmann_json_default_obj.name);
        nlohmann_json_t.address = nlohmann_json_j.value("address", nlohmann_json_default_obj.address);
        nlohmann_json_t.age = nlohmann_json_j.value("age", nlohmann_json_default_obj.age);
    }
};
} // namespace ns

int main()
{
    ns::person p = {"Ned Flanders", "744 Evergreen Terrace", 60};

    // serialization: person -> json
    json j = p;
    std::cout << "serialization: " << j << std::endl;

    // deserialization: json -> person
    json j2 = R"({"address": "742 Evergreen Terrace", "age": 40, "name": "Homer Simpson"})"_json;
    auto p2 = j2.get<ns::person>();

    // incomplete deserialization:
    json j3 = R"({"address": "742 Evergreen Terrace", "name": "Maggie Simpson"})"_json;
    auto p3 = j3.get<ns::person>();
    std::cout << "roundtrip: " << json(p3) << std::endl;
}

Note how a default-initialized person object is used in the from_json to fill missing values.

See also

Version history

  1. Added in version 3.9.0.
  2. Added in version 3.11.0.

Last update: September 18, 2022